Fetal Alcohol Syndrome and Fetal Alcohol Effects
Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) is a term used to describe a number of problems that can result in people whose mothers drank alcohol during pregnancy. FASD includes a variety of mental, physical, behavioural and learning disabilities. If a pregnant woman drinks any alcohol at any time during pregnancy, the alcohol crosses the placenta to the fetus. Alcohol damages the developing cells of the fetus. The brain and central nervous system are particularly sensitive to alcohol and can suffer permanent damage. Any amount of alcohol can have some effect, so there is no minimum amount of alcohol in pregnancy that is safe. The developing fetus can't break down the alcohol as quickly as an adult, so its exposure to alcohol is actually higher than the mother's.
FASD is caused during pregnancy by the mother drinking alcohol. Alcohol damages the developing brain and nervous system of the baby, leading to mental, physical, and developmental problems.
The following are risk factors for FASD:
- timing of alcohol use during the pregnancy
- amount and frequency of alcohol consumption
- the mother's general health
- the mother’s age
- nutrition of the mother
- smoking or other drug use
- resources available to the mother
Consuming alcohol in any form during pregnancy is dangerous to the fetus. Alcohol is officially classified as a known teratogen, which means it can cause birth defects in the fetus. The more alcohol a pregnant woman drinks, the greater the risk of the fetus developing FASD. Drinking early in pregnancy may cause changes in the facial features, heart and other organs, bones, and the central nervous system.
In Canada, about 10% of women use alcohol during pregnancy, and it is estimated that each year more than 3,000 babies are born with FASD. There are an estimated 300,000 people living with FASD. The lack of awareness of the effects of alcohol as a teratogen on a developing fetus is one reason for the high incidence of FASD.
Symptoms and Complications
A child who has FASD displays defects at birth or during development. The most common physical effects of FAS are:
- central nervous system abnormalities (problems with brain development and behaviour)
- a particular pattern of facial features (see below)
- slower than average growth
Signs of central nervous system abnormalities include delayed development, behavioural problems, or learning disabilities and intellectual impairment. For example, children with FASD may develop the ability to speak or walk later than normal. Behavioural problems may include hyperactivity, nervousness, anxiety, and short attention spans.
Typical facial malformations features include short eye slits or drooping eyes, a thin upper lip, flattened cheekbones, and the absence of a distinct groove between the upper lip and nose.
A child with FASD may be smaller for their age than normal. At birth, the baby may be undersized or have a small head. Other defects include malformation of internal organs such as the heart, liver, and kidneys. Visual impairment and hearing problems may also exist.
Making the Diagnosis
Diagnosis of a child with FAS includes the mother's drinking history, a physical examination of the child and observation. The doctor or psychologist may also test the child for learning disabilities. This will help direct the child to school programs and early developmental intervention services to help them learn. To rule out a possible genetic disorder, a doctor may also request genetic testing.
Treatment and Prevention
Fortunately, FASD is a completely preventable condition. A pregnant woman can prevent FASD in her baby by not drinking any alcohol at any point during pregnancy.
If a woman discovers that she is pregnant after consuming alcohol, abstaining from drinking alcohol from that point on is the best solution. By doing so, further damage to the baby is prevented.
The main things a woman can do to prevent FASD include:
- not drinking any alcohol at all during pregnancy
- not drinking any alcohol if you are trying to become pregnant
- seeking medical or professional help if you drink regularly and can't stop while pregnant
There is no way to reverse the damage of prenatal alcohol exposure. The mental and physical deficiencies associated with FASD last a lifetime. However, there are ways to help people with FASD or related conditions.
Children with FASD require good nutrition to help them grow and develop. As the child grows, parents can manage behavioural problems associated with FASD by:
- learning as much as possible about the condition
- seeking help from trained professionals
- educating teachers and family members
- finding support groups in the community
- setting rules for the child and enforcing those rules
- rewarding acceptable behaviour
- providing the child with set daily routines
Medication is available to treat certain behavioural problems such as hyperactivity and attention deficit disorders (ADD) in children with FASD. Medications such as dextroamphetamine sulfate* and methylphenidate treat attention deficit and attention deficit hyperactivity disorders (ADHD).